What is the key to prevent excessive physical activity from damaging health

What should be considered is the amount of exercise and intensity that are healthy for the body and how much rest is necessary (Getty Images)
What should be considered is the amount of exercise and intensity that are healthy for the body and how much rest is necessary (Getty Images)

Especially people who enjoy doing it and who, more than physical exercise, do training, They usually make efforts without considering the moments of rest as fundamental.

Science is investigating the damage that can be caused by uncontrolled exercise without paying attention to the rest that each organism needs. A recent study by specialists from sweden indicated that too much high-intensity physical activity could affect cell function. Also, other scientists are investigating why excessive exercise it can lead to stress fractures, lack of sleep, and other health problems. “Exercise can be detrimental at very high volume,” he said. Mark Pataky, physiologist and assistant professor of medicine at the Mayo Clinic in the United States.

It is opportune to clarify that what these specialists are saying It is not that exercise should be abandoned, since nobody is reviewing the benefits that this brings to the body. Physical activity increases bone density, counteracts muscle atrophy, and protects against chronic disease.

Experts have focused in many cases on studying people who do endurance sports such as ultramarathons, which are races longer than the 42-kilometre marathon.
Experts have focused in many cases on studying people who do endurance sports such as ultramarathons, which are races longer than the 42-kilometre marathon.

Regular exercise helps prevent or manage many health problems and concerns, including: metabolic syndrome; high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, depression, anxiety, various cancers, arthritis, and falls. May also help improve cognitive function and helps reduce the risk of death from all causes.

What the experts are detecting and analyzing it is the amount of exercise and its intensity that are healthy for the body and how much rest is necessary. These are aspects in which there is still no closed and forceful answer, although they warn that there are personal factors such as age, gender and physical condition of each one that will vary these factors.

Even when it takes place normal physical activity causes damage to the body and a healing process is generated. Exercise causes microtears in the muscles and microfractures in the bones, injuries that provoke an inflammatory response that, given enough time, will repair the damage. repeated in time, the body adapts and becomes stronger.

Normal physical activity causes damage to the body and a healing process is generated (Getty Images)
Normal physical activity causes damage to the body and a healing process is generated (Getty Images)

“I describe exercise as a ‘strategically applied trauma’”he claimed Brett Elyassistant professor of nutrition and physical performance and exercise science at the Salem State University in Massachusetts. If the body is not given time to recover and repair itself, the immune system becomes disrupted, inflammation becomes chronic, “adaptation wears off and it becomes chronically impaired,” he described. Christopher Minson, cardiovascular physiologist at University of Oregon who works with college and professional athletes.

Minson warned that Excessive exercise can cause fatigue, irritability, insomnia, and stress fractures. In addition, it can decrease motivation and impair performance.

Experts have focused in many cases on studying people who perform endurance sports like ultramarathonswhat are races longer than the 42 kilometers of the marathon. According to data reported by the International Association of Ultrarunners and the sports shoe review company RunRepeat.com, between 2010 and 2020 that sport more than tripled.

Exercise causes microtears in muscles and microfractures in bones (Getty Images)
Exercise causes microtears in muscles and microfractures in bones (Getty Images)

Kelsey Santisteban, 28suffered five stress fractures while running cross country and track for the University of California, Berkeley. Every time he peaked at him, he got injured. It was only after college that Santisteban realized that he had been training too much. As he said he, “I just wanted to push myself all the time”quoted The Wall Street Journal. A better approach, in hindsight, would be to add more days of lighter training, Santisteban said.

Something that is already known by scientists is that, in the cases of people with little training, exertion that they are not trained to do can lead to rhabdomyolysis (rhabdo), a serious medical condition in which damaged muscles release substances into the blood that can damage the heart and kidneys.

According to a study of Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences made in 2021, published in the magazine Cell Metabolismthe Excessive exercise impairs the functioning of the mitochondria, the cellular structures that use oxygen to generate energy. That impediment could be the reason why excessive exercise can lead to extreme fatigue and decreased performance, said Mikael Flockhart, a doctoral student at that institution and one of the researchers who did the work.

In the study of 64 adults ages 60 to 75, a two-day-a-week program of high-intensity resistance training with a day of low-intensity exercise in between led to greater gains in muscle mass and strength (Getty)
In the study of 64 adults ages 60 to 75, a two-day-a-week program of high-intensity resistance training with a day of low-intensity exercise in between led to greater gains in muscle mass and strength (Getty)

To reach this conclusion, the Swedish specialists performed muscle biopsies on 11 people during four weeks of high-intensity interval training. The volunteers tolerated 90 minutes a week of the call HIIT exercise, (high-intensity interval training). The damage occurred when the weekly exercise reached 152 minutesyes Excessive exercise also lowered the participants’ glucose tolerance, which affected their bodies’ ability to process sugar. Conditions were partially reversed when exercise intensity was reduced.

This revealing study points to the need to better determine the correct amount of exercise and pace for different sports and groups of people, based on a number of factors, said Dr. pataky.

One of the aspects that Swedish scientists are studying is why training affects women differently than men. This will allow you to adapt the exercises and make more accurate recommendations.. In general, the studies carried out were based on male athletes, so the recommendations arising from these could not be applied to female athletes, according to a research review published this year in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.

Researchers say the best results were due to allowing adequate time for recovery (Getty Images)
Researchers say the best results were due to allowing adequate time for recovery (Getty Images)

Female athletes are more likely than men to develop iron deficiencies during training, according to the aforementioned review. Age also influences tolerance to high-intensity training.

Another notable aspect is the difference you must have in training in older adults. A group of scientists from University of Alabama at Birmingham found that high-intensity resistance training three times a week, a regimen that promotes robust muscle growth in young adults, was not the best exercise recipe for older adults.

In the study of 64 adults aged 60 to 75, a two-day-a-week program of high-intensity resistance training with one day of low-intensity exercise in between led to greater gains in muscle mass and strength. The researchers say this it was probably because he allowed adequate time for recovery.

Thus, three days of high-intensity exercise in a row is suitable for young adults, but they gave poor results and a increased inflammation in older athletesAccording to the study published in the journal Experimental Gerontology in 2017.

One of the aspects that Swedish scientists are studying is why training affects women differently than men (Getty Images)
One of the aspects that Swedish scientists are studying is why training affects women differently than men (Getty Images)

darrin hillswho first started lifting weights in her life at age 45, now, at age 52, shares strength training tips and photos of her progress with her 10,000 Instagram followers, reported Newsweek. “Give your body time to recover. Start small and work your way up,” she advised. Hills recommendation for the beginning is an exercise plan for beginners and choose activities that are possible for each one while gaining strength. “Leave your ego at home,” she advises, “otherwise you’ll just hurt yourself and quit,” she said.

Kacy Duke, 65, is one of the most reputable fitness advisors in the United States. She has trained celebrities like actresses Julianne Moore and Kate Beckinsale. She said the first thing she should do A person who is around 50 years old and begins a physical activity is to experiment with many different exercises to find the one that is most enjoyable.. “Life is to be lived. Enjoy the journey of exercise and mix it up. Make it an adventure,” she recommended.

In addition, other scientists are investigating why excessive exercise can lead to stress fractures, lack of sleep and other health problems
In addition, other scientists are investigating why excessive exercise can lead to stress fractures, lack of sleep and other health problems

As a conclusion it can be said that the antidote to excessive exercise is time and rest. General life stressors such as a wedding, a move or a new baby can slow recovery, said Dr. Ely, a marathon runner. Many training programs allow at least one rest day a week, which generally means no intense structured exercise, he added. For people with higher fitness levels, a rest day might include a 30-minute jog.

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