Ephemeris of December 1

On December 1, 1955, the seamstress Rosa Parks is arrested and tried for refusing to give up her seat to a white person in Montgomery, Alabama (USA).

Other ephemeris:

1640.- Portugal separates from the Spanish Crown, a fact that the neighboring country commemorates with the “Day of the restoration of independence”.

1821.- Costa Rica adopts its first Constitution, called the Pact of Concord.

1822.- Pedro I, son of Juan VI of Portugal, is crowned Emperor of Brazil.

1846.- “La Esperanza”, the first newspaper published in the Philippines, appears in Manila.

1911.- Mongolia proclaims itself an independent State of China.

1913.- The Buenos Aires Subway is inaugurated, the first metropolitan in Latin America.

1919.- Nancy Astor becomes the first woman to hold a seat in the House of Commons of the British Parliament.

1924.- The Mexican General Plutarco Elías Calles, supported by General Obregón, is elected President of the Republic of Mexico.

1927.- First transmission of images by telegraph between Berlin and Vienna.

1934.- Sergei Mironovich Kirov, secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, is assassinated.

1943.- World War II: The Tehran Conference ends, in which Churchill (Great Britain), Roosevelt (USA) and Stalin (USSR) participated.

1948.- Abolition of the Costa Rican Army after the end of the last civil war in the country.

1957.- In Colombia, a constitutional amendment is approved by plebiscite that establishes the equal participation of the Liberal and Conservative parties in the collegiate bodies and the alternation in the Presidency for 16 years.

1977.- Suppressed in Spain film censorship.

1988.- First World Day of the fight against AIDS.

1989.- The Soviet president, Mikhail Gorbachev, visits John Paul II in the Vatican. Agreement to formalize relations between the two states.

1991.- Ukraine approves its independence from the USSR by referendum and holds its first presidential elections.

1999.- More than 200 people die and another 200,000 are missing due to torrential rains in Colombia.

2001.- Argentina announces that it will take measures to prevent capital flight from the financial system, which will give rise to the “corralito” (restriction on cash withdrawals from banks).

2002.- 47 people died in the fire at the “Guajira” nightclub in downtown Caracas (Venezuela).

2011.- The Chilean poet Nicanor Parra wins the Cervantes Prize.

2013.- The Ukrainian opposition takes kyiv’s Independence Square to demand the resignation of President Yanukovych.

2015.- The former Argentine president Carlos Menem (1989-1999) is sentenced to 4.5 years in prison and perpetual disqualification from holding public office, for the payment of bonuses during his administration as head of the Executive.

2016.- Prince Vajiralongkorn is proclaimed King of Thailand.

2017.- Michael Flynn, former National Security adviser to US President Donald Trump, acknowledges that he lied about the Russian plot.

2018.- Andrés Manuel López Obrador, president-elect of Mexico, officially assumes office.

2019.- “World War Zero” is born (“World War Zero”): a group of celebrities and politicians led by former US Secretary of State John Kerry to demand action in the face of the climate crisis.

2020.- The Cuban dissident Silverio Portal, 72, considered a prisoner of conscience by Amnesty International, is released after two years in prison.

2021.- Former Argentine President Mauricio Macri is prosecuted for alleged illegal espionage of the relatives of the crew of the “San Juan” submarine, sunk in 2017.

BIRTHS.

1869.- Eloy Gonzalo García the Cascorro hero, Spanish soldier in the Cuban war.

1897.- Miguel Fleta, Spanish tenor.

1904..- Telesforo Monzón, Spanish writer and politician.

1912.- Minoru Yamasaki, American architect and designer of the Twin Towers in New York.

1933 .- Curro Romero, Spanish bullfighter.

1935.- Woody Allen, American film actor and director.

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1949.- Sebastián Piñera Echenique, Chilean politician.

.- Pablo Escobar, Colombian drug trafficker founder of the Medellín Cartel.

1971.- Emily Mortimer, British actress.

1988.- Zoë Kravitz, American actress and singer.

2001.- Aiko, only daughter of the Emperor of Japan Naruhito and the Empress Masako.

DEATHS.

1825.- Alexander I, Tsar of Russia.

1947.- José Lázaro Galdiano, Spanish philanthropist.

1987.- James Baldwin, African-American writer and civil rights activist.

2008.- Mikel Laboa, Basque singer-songwriter.

2009.- Alberto Ariel Martínez Píriz, Uruguayan soccer player.

2010.- Socorro Bonilla Castellón, Nicaraguan actress, promoter and theater entrepreneur.

2013.- Alfonso Armada, ex-general convicted of the 23-F coup.

2021.- Noemi Gerbelli, Brazilian actress, producer. EFE

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